1 extending or lying across; in a crosswise direction; at right angles to the long axis; "cross members should be all steel"; "from the transverse hall the stairway ascends gracefully"; "transversal vibrations"; "transverse colon" [syn: cross(a), transverse, transversal, thwartwise]
1 a wooden structure consisting of an upright post with a transverse piece
3 a cross as an emblem of Christianity; used in heraldry
4 any affliction that causes great suffering; "that is his cross to bear"; "he bears his afflictions like a crown of thorns" [syn: crown of thorns]
5 an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock; especially offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties or breeds or species; "a mule is a cross between a horse and a donkey" [syn: hybrid, crossbreed]
6 (genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids [syn: hybridization, hybridisation, crossbreeding, crossing, interbreeding, hybridizing]
1 travel across or pass over; "The caravan covered almost 100 miles each day" [syn: traverse, track, cover, pass over, get over, get across, cut through, cut across]
2 meet at a point [syn: intersect]
3 hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of; "What ultimately frustrated every challenger was Ruth's amazing September surge"; "foil your opponent" [syn: thwart, queer, spoil, scotch, foil, frustrate, baffle, bilk]
4 fold so as to resemble a cross; "she crossed her legs" [ant: uncross]
5 to cover or extend over an area or time period; "Rivers traverse the valley floor", "The parking lot spans 3 acres"; "The novel spans three centuries" [syn: traverse, span, sweep]
6 meet and pass; "the trains crossed"
7 trace a line through or across; "cross your `t'"
8 breed animals or plants using parents of different races and varieties; "cross a horse and a donkey"; "Mendel tried crossbreeding"; "these species do not interbreed" [syn: crossbreed, hybridize, hybridise, interbreed]
- A geometrical figure consisting of two straight lines or bars intersecting each other such that at least one of them is bisected by the other.
- Any geometric figure having this shape, such as a cross of Lorraine or a Maltese cross.
- A wooden post with a perpendicular beam attached and used (especially in the Roman Empire) to execute criminals (by crucifixion).
- (usually with the) The cross on which Christ was crucified.
- A hand gesture made by Christians in imitation of the shape of the Cross.
- (figurative, from Christ's bearing of the cross) A difficult situation that must be
- It's a cross I must bear.
- Animal or plant produced by crossbreeding or cross-fertilization.
- a hook thrown over the opponent's punch
- A kick in which the ball travels from one side of the pitch to the other
- Albanian: kryq
- Bosnian: krst
- Catalan: creu
- Croatian: križ
- Czech: kříž
- Dutch: kruis
- Esperanto: kruco
- Estonian: rist
- Finnish: risti, rasti (like X)
- French: croix
- German: Kreuz
- Greek: σταυρός
- Hungarian: kereszt
- Icelandic: kross
- Italian: croce
- Latin: crux
- Latvian: krusts
- Malayalam: കുരിശ് (kuriSu)
- Norwegian: kryss
- Old English: crūċ
- Polish: krzyż
- Russian: крест (kr'est)
- Scottish Gaelic: crois
- Spanish: cruz
- Swedish: kors , kryss
- Ukrainian: хрест
wooden post with a perpendicular beam, used for crucifixion
- Dutch: kruis
- Finnish: risti, ristinpuu
- French: croix
- German: Kreuz
- Greek: σταυρός
- Italian: croce
- Latin: crux
- Latvian: krusts
- Malayalam: കുരിശ് (kuriSu)
- Norwegian: kors
- Old English: crūċ, rōd
- Polish: krzyż
- Swedish: kors
- Ukrainian: хрест,
definite: the cross on which Christ was crucified
gesture made by Christians
figuratively: difficult situation
biology: animal or plant produced by crossbreeding or cross-fertilization
- Italian: diagonale
- 190 mile cross country walk
- To go from one side of (something) to the other.
- Why did the chicken cross the road?
- To travel in a
direction or path that
will intersect with that of another.
- Ships crossing from starboard have right-of-way.
- To contradict
(another) or frustrate
the plans of.
- "You'll rue the day you tried to cross me, Tom Hero!" bellowed the villain.
- (reflexive to cross oneself) To make the sign of the cross over oneself.
- In the context of "cricket|reciprocally": Of both batsmen, to pass each other when running between the wickets in order to score runs.
- to cross-fertilize or crossbreed
- to conduct a cross examination; to question a hostile witness
- To pass the ball from one side of the pitch to the other side.
go from one side of something to the other
- Ainu: トモツ゜イェ (tomotuye)
- Dutch: oversteken
- Finnish: ylittää (a narrow thing), mennä yli (a narrow thing), mennä poikki (e.g., a room'')
- French: traverser
- German: kreuzen
- Italian: attraversare
- Japanese: 渡る (わたる, wataru)
- Korean: 건너다 (geonneoda)
- Malayalam: കടക്കുക (katakkuka)
- Norwegian: krysse
- Portuguese: atravessar
- Russian: пересекать/пересечь (peresekát’/pereséč), переходить/перейти (perexodít’/perejtí)
- Spanish: atravesar
- Swedish: korsa
- Telugu: దాటు (daaTu)
travel in a direction or path that will intersect with that another
contradict or frustrate the plans of
make the sign of the cross over oneself
biology: to cross-fertilize or crossbreed
A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other, dividing one or two of the lines in half. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally; if they run diagonally, the design is technically termed a saltire.
The cross is one of the most ancient human symbols, and is used by many religions, most notably Christianity. It is frequently a representation of the division of the world into four elements (Chevalier, 1997) (or cardinal points), or alternately as the union of the concepts of divinity, the vertical line, and the world, the horizontal line (Koch, 1955).
EtymologyThe word cross was introduced to English in the 10th century as the term for the instrument of the torturous execution of Christ (gradually replacing the earlier word rood), ultimately from Latin crux, via Old Irish cros. The word can nowadays refer to the geometrical shape unrelated to its Christian significance. The Latin Crux (translating Greek stauros) was a Roman torture device used for crucifixion.
It is not known when the first cross image was made; after circles, crosses are one of the first symbols drawn by children of all cultures. There are many cross-shaped incisions in European cult caves, dating back to the earliest stages of human cultural development in the stone age. Like other symbols from this period, their use continued in the Celtic and Germanic cultures in Europe. For example, celtic coins minted many centuries before the Christian era may have an entire side showing this type of cross, sometimes with the five cardinal points marked by concave depressions in the same style as in stoneage carvings. Other coins may be showing the cross held by a rider on a horse and springing forth a fern leaf, sometimes identified as a Tree of Life symbol.
As markingsWritten crosses are used for many different purposes, particularly in mathematics.
A cross is often used as a check mark because it can be clearer, easier to create with an ordinary pen or pencil, and less obscuring of the text or image that is already present than a large dot. It also allows marking a position more accurately than a large dot.
A large cross through a text often means that it is wrong or should be considered deleted.
As emblems and symbols
In heraldryThese crosses are ones used primarily or exclusively in heraldry and do not necessarily have any special meanings commonly associated with them. Not all the crosses of heraldry and the crosses with commonly known contexts are listed below.
There are numerous other variations on the cross in heraldry. See heraldry for background information.
The semi-classic book A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry by James Parker (1894) is online, and contains much information about variants of crosses used in heraldry.
Several flags have crosses, including all the nations of Scandinavia, whose crosses are known as Scandinavian crosses, and many nations in the Southern Hemisphere, which incorporate the Southern Cross. The Flag of Switzerland since the 17th century has displayed an equilateral cross in a square (the only square flag of a sovereign state apart from the Flag of the Vatican City); the Red Cross emblem was based on the Swiss flag.
Other noteworthy crossesThe Crux, or Southern Cross, is a cross-shaped constellation in the Southern Hemisphere. It appears on the national flags of Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea and Samoa.
The tallest cross, at 152.4 metres high, is part of Francisco Franco's monumental "Valley of the Fallen", the Monumento Nacional de Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos in Spain.
The tallest cross in the United States, at 198 feet (60.3 m) tall, is allegedly located in Effingham, Illinois, at the junction of Interstates 57 and 70.
The 5th-century BC tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam, Iran, are carved into the cliffside in the shape of a cross. They are known as the "Persian crosses".
- Chevalier, Jean (1997). "The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols". Penguin ISBN 0140512543
- Koch, Rudolf (1955). The Book of Signs. Dover, NY. ISBN 0-486-20162-7.
- Drury, Nevill (1985). Dictionary of Mysticism and the Occult. Harper & Row ISBN 0060620935
- Webber, F. R. (1927, rev 1938). Church Symbolism: an explanation of the more important symbols of the Old and New Testament, the primitive, the mediaeval and the modern church. Cleveland, OH. .
cross in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܨܠܝܒܐ
cross in Catalan: Creu
cross in Czech: Kříž
cross in Danish: Kors
cross in German: Kreuz (Symbol)
cross in Modern Greek (1453-): Σταυρός
cross in Spanish: Cruz
cross in French: Croix (symbole)
cross in Scottish Gaelic: Crois
cross in Korean: 십자
cross in Croatian: Križ
cross in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Cruce
cross in Italian: Croce
cross in Hebrew: צלב
cross in Latin: Crux
cross in Macedonian: Крст
cross in Dutch: kruis
cross in Japanese: 十字
cross in Norwegian: Kors
cross in Narom: Crouaix
cross in Polish: Krzyż
cross in Portuguese: Cruz (símbolo)
cross in Romanian: Cruce
cross in Russian: Крест
cross in Albanian: Kryqi
cross in Slovak: Kríž
cross in Serbian: Крст
cross in Finnish: Risti
cross in Swedish: Kors
cross in Tamil: சிலுவை
cross in Ukrainian: Хрест
cross in Chinese: 十字
cross in Simple English: Cross
Agnus Dei, Calvary cross, Cape Colored, Christogram, Eurasian, Greek cross, Holy Grail, Host, Jerusalem cross, John Hancock, Latin cross, Malacca cane, Maltese cross, Russian cross, Sanctus bell, Sangraal, T, X, abjure, achievement, across, across the grain, adversary, adversative, adverse, adverse circumstances, adversity, affliction, against the grain, against the tide, against the wind, aggravation, alerion, alien, alpenstock, angered, angry, animal charge, ankh, annoyance, annoyed, annulet, antagonistic, antagonize, anti, antipathetic, antithetic, arch, argent, ark, armorial bearings, armory, arms, asperger, asperges, aspergillum, assert the contrary, at cross-purposes, at daggers, at daggers drawn, at issue, at loggerheads, at odds, at variance, at war, at war with, athwart, athwartships, autograph, avellan cross, ax, azure, badge, badge of office, badges, baffle, balk, bambino, bandeau, bar, bar sinister, barrow, bastard, baton, be antipathetic, be at cross-purposes, be contrary to, be inimical, beadroll, beads, bearings, bearish, beat against, belie, bend, bend sinister, bestride, bilk, billet, bitchy, bitter cup, bitter draft, bitter draught, bitter pill, blast, blazon, blazonry, blend, bless, blight, block, boat, bordure, boundary stone, brass, brassard, brave, broad arrow, browned-off, bummer, burden, burden of care, burthen, bust, button, bypass, cadency mark, cairn, call into question, calvary, cancel, candle, cane, cankered, cankerworm of care, canoe, cantankerous, canton, cap and gown, captious, care, cargo, carping, carry sail, cast down, cattalo, caviling, cenotaph, censer, chain, chain of office, challenge, chaplet, charge, checkmate, chevron, chi, chi-rho, chiasmal, chiasmic, chiastic, chief, choleric, christcross, churlish, ciborium, cipher, circumnavigate, circumvent, citrange, clash, clashing, class ring, coast, coat of arms, cockade, cockatrice, collar, collide, column, combination, competitive, con, conflict, conflict with, conflicting, confound, confront, confute, contest, contra, contradict, contradictory, contrapose, contrariwise, contrary, contravene, contrawise, controvert, coronet, counter, counteract, counterattack, countermand, countermark, counterpose, countersign, countersignature, counterstamp, countervail, counterwork, crabbed, cranky, crescent, crest, crisscross, cromlech, crook, crosier, cross ancre, cross botonee, cross bourdonee, cross fitche, cross fleury, cross formee, cross fourchee, cross grignolee, cross moline, cross of Cleves, cross of Lorraine, cross patee, cross recercelee, cross-crosslet, cross-grained, cross-shaped, cross-staff, crossbar, crossbones, crossbred, crossbreed, crosscut, crossed, crossing, crosslet, crosslike, crossway, crossways, crosswise, crotchety, crown, crown of thorns, cruciate, crucible, cruciferous, crucifix, cruciform, cruet, cruise, crusty, crutch, crutch-stick, crux, crux ansata, crux capitata, crux decussata, crux gammata, crux immissa, crux ordinaria, cumbrance, cup, curse, cussed, cut across, cyclolith, dagger, dash, deadweight, death chair, death chamber, decoration, decussate, decussated, defeat, defeat expectation, defy, delete, deny, destroy, device, difference, differencing, differing, difficulties, difficulty, disaccordant, disadvantage, disaffirm, disagreeable, disagreeing, disallow, disappoint, disavow, disclaim, discomfit, disconcert, discordant, discountenance, discrepant, dish, disharmonious, disillusion, disown, disproportionate, disprove, dispute, disrupt, dissatisfy, dissentient, dissident, dissonant, distress, divergent, dolmen, double-cross, downer, dress, drop, eagle, electric chair, elude, embarrassment, emblems, encumbrance, endorsement, enemy, ensigns, erase, ermine, ermines, erminites, erminois, escutcheon, eucharistial, ex, excitable, exing, eyeball-to-eyeball, falcon, fasces, faultfinding, feisty, fess, fess point, field, figurehead, file, flanch, fleur-de-lis, flummox, foil, footstone, ford, fork cross, forswear, fractious, freight, fret, frustrate, fur, furious, fusil, gainsay, gall, gall and wormwood, gallows, gallows-tree, gammadion, garland, gas chamber, get ahead of, gibbet, give benediction, go across, go against, go by, go by ship, go counter to, go on shipboard, go to sea, grating, grave, gravestone, grievance, griffe, griffin, grouchy, grumpy, guillotine, gules, gyron, half blood, half-bred, half-breed, half-caste, halter, hammer and sickle, hamper, hand, handicap, handstaff, hard knocks, hard life, hard lot, hardcase, hardship, hatchment, headstone, helmet, hemp, hempen collar, heraldic device, heraldry, high yellow, hinny, hoarstone, holy cross, holy water, holy-water sprinkler, honor point, hostile, hot seat, huffish, huffy, hybrid, hybridize, icon, immiscible, impalement, impaling, impediment, impedimenta, imposition, impugn, in confrontation, in hostile array, in opposition, inaccordant, incensed, incensory, incompatible, inconvenience, indignant, inescutcheon, infliction, inharmonious, inimical, initials, inscription, insignia, interbred, interbreed, intercross, interfere with, intersect, intersected, intersecting, inverted cross, invoke benefits upon, irascible, irate, ireful, irritable, irritated, irritation, jangling, jarring, join, join issue upon, join the opposition, label, ladino, lapel pin, lay hands on, let down, lethal chamber, lie across, lie athwart, liger, lion, lituus, livery, livid, load, lock horns, long cross, lozenge, lumber, mace, mad, maiden, make a passage, mantle, mantling, mark, mark of signature, marker, markings, marshaling, martlet, mascle, matzo, mausoleum, mean, medal, meet, meet head-on, megalith, memento, memorial, memorial arch, memorial column, memorial statue, memorial stone, menhir, menorah, mestee, mestiza, mestizo, metal, metis, metisse, mezuzah, mikvah, militate against, miscegenate, mixblood, mixed-blood, mongrel, mongrelize, monogram, monolith, monstrance, monument, moody, mortarboard, motorboat, motto, mound, mulatto, mule, mullet, mustee, navigate, necrology, negate, negative, nombril point, noncooperative, nonplus, noose, not abide, not accept, not admit, nullify, obelisk, obituary, oblique, obliquely, obstinate, octofoil, octoroon, old school tie, onus, opponent, oppose, opposed, opposing, opposite, oppositional, oppositive, oppression, oppugn, oppugnant, or, ordeal, ordinary, orle, ornery, osculatory, ostensorium, out of accord, out of whack, over, overstride, overthwart, pack, pack of troubles, pale, paly, papal cross, paschal candle, pass, pass by, pass over, pastoral staff, paterissa, pax, pean, peck of troubles, pectoral cross, peevish, penalty, perplex, perverse, pettish, petulant, pheon, phylacteries, pillar, pin, piqued, pissed, pissed-off, plaque, play at cross-purposes, plight, plumcot, ply, potent cross, prayer shawl, prayer wheel, predicament, pressure, prize, protest, purpure, pyramid, pyx, quadroon, quarter, quartering, quarterstaff, querulous, quick-tempered, quintroon, ratty, rebut, recalcitrant, recant, refractory, refuse to admit, refute, regalia, reject, relics, reliquary, remembrance, renounce, repudiate, repugnant, resist, retract, revoke, ribbon, rigor, riled up, ring, rival, rood, rope, rosary, rose, rostral column, row, rub out, ruin, run, run against, run counter to, sable, sabotage, sacred relics, sacring bell, sail, sail round, sail the sea, saltire, sambo, scaffold, school ring, scotch, scull, scutcheon, sea of troubles, seafare, seal, secant, sell, sell out, shaft, shamrock, shield, shillelagh, shirty, shofar, shoot ahead of, short-tempered, shrine, sideways, sidewise, sigil, sigillography, sign manual, signature, signet, skull and crossbones, snappish, sore, sorrow, span, sphragistics, spike, spiteful, spleeny, splenetic, split, spoil, spread eagle, staff, stake, stave, steam, steamboat, stela, step over, stick, stone, stonewall, straddle, stress, stress of life, strike out, stump, stupa, subordinary, subscription, sukkah, surly, swagger stick, swanking stick, swastika, swim upstream, tabernacle, tablet, take a voyage, take back, take issue with, tallith, tangelo, tantalize, tartan, tau, tease, tenne, testimonial, testy, tetchy, the chair, thistle, thorn, thurible, thwart, thwartly, thwartways, ticked off, tie, tigon, tincture, tomb, tombstone, tope, torse, touchy, transversal, transverse, transversely, traverse, tree, trefled cross, tressure, trial, tribulation, trophy, trouble, troubles, ugly, uncongenial, uncooperative, unfavorable, unfriendly, unharmonious, unicorn, uniform, unpropitious, up in arms, upset, urceole, vair, vale of tears, variant, verge, veronica, vert, vexed, vicissitude, vigil light, visa, vise, visitation, voided cross, vote against, votive candle, voyage, walking stick, wand, waspish, waters of bitterness, weight, white elephant, wipe out, with crossed bayonets, withstand, woe, work against, worked up, wrathful, wrathy, wreath, wroth, wrought-up, x-shaped, yacht, yale, zebrass, zebrule